Entries tagged lighttpd

Related tags: amd64, apache, arch, docker, graphite, i386, ipv6, lenny, multiviews, nginx, random, thttpd, work.

Translating my website to Finnish

Thursday, 28 December 2017

I've now been living in Finland for two years, and I'm pondering a small project to translate my main website into Finnish.

Obviously if my content is solely Finnish it will become of little interest to the world - if my vanity lets me even pretend it is useful at the moment!

The traditional way to do this, with Apache, is to render pages in multiple languages and let the client(s) request their preferred version with Accept-Language:. Though it seems that many clients are terrible at this, and the whole approach is a mess. Pretending it works though we render pages such as:

index.html
index.en.html
index.fi.html

Then "magic happens", such that the right content is served. I can then do extra-things, like add links to "English" or "Finnish" in the header/footers to let users choose.

Unfortunately I have an immediate problem! I host a bunch of websites on a single machine and I don't want to allow a single site compromise to affect other sites. To do that I run each website under its own Unix user. For example I have the website "steve.fi" running as the "s-fi" user, and my blog runs as "s-blog", or "s-blogfi":

root@www ~ # psx -ef | egrep '(s-blog|s-fi)'
s-blogfi /usr/sbin/lighttpd -f /srv/blog.steve.fi/lighttpd.conf -D
s-blog   /usr/sbin/lighttpd -f /srv/blog.steve.org.uk/lighttpd.conf -D
s-fi     /usr/sbin/lighttpd -f /srv/steve.fi/lighttpd.conf -D

There you can see the Unix user, and the per-user instance of lighttpd which hosts the website. Each instance binds to a high-port on localhost, and I have a reverse proxy listening on the public IP address to route incoming connections to the appropriate back-end instance.

I used to use thttpd but switched to lighttpd to allow CGI scripts to be used - some of my sites are slightly/mostly dynamic.

Unfortunately lighttpd doesn't support multiviews without some Lua hacks which will require rewriting - as the supplied example only handles Accept rather than the language-header I want.

It seems my simplest solution is to switch from having lighttpd on the back-end to running apache2 instead, but I've not yet decided which way to jump.

Food for thought, anyway.

hyvää joulua!

| 2 comments.

 

Some direction, some distraction

Thursday, 27 February 2014

It seems that several people replied to the effect that they would pay people to take care of applying security updates, or even configuring adhoc things such as wikis, graphite, and MySQL.

Not enough people to rely upon, but perhaps there is scope for remote stuff being done in exchange for folding-money. (Of course some of those that replied are in foreign countries which makes receiving payment an annoyance, that's a separate problem though.)

Food for thought.

In the meantime I've settled into my use of lighttpd, which I've recently migrated to.

One interesting thing is that you can set your own "Server Name" directive:

# Set server name/version
server.tag = "lighttpd/(steve)"

This value is used by mod_dirlisting, so for example if you examine a directory which doesn't contain an index.html file you see the server-name. Cute.

Well cute unless, or until, somebody sets:

# Set server name/version
server.tag = "<script>alert(3)</script>"

That does indeed show javascript to all your visitors. Not a security problem itself, as you need to be root on the remote site. If you're root in the remote server you could just modify the actual HTML pages being served to include your javascript. That said it's a little icky.

The following patch avoids the issue:

--- mod_dirlisting.c.org	2014-02-26 00:14:43.296373275 +0000
+++ mod_dirlisting.c	2014-02-26 00:16:28.332371547 +0000
@@ -618,7 +618,7 @@
 		} else if (buffer_is_empty(con->conf.server_tag)) {
 			buffer_append_string_len(out, CONST_STR_LEN(PACKAGE_DESC));
 		} else {
-			buffer_append_string_buffer(out, con->conf.server_tag);
+                        buffer_append_string_encoded(out, CONST_BUF_LEN(con->conf.server_tag), ENCODING_HTML);
 		}

 		buffer_append_string_len(out, CONST_STR_LEN(

| 2 comments.

 

Changing my stack ..

Saturday, 22 February 2014

For the past few years I've hosted all my websites in a "special" way:

  • Each website runs under its own UID.
  • Each website runs a local thttpd / webserver.
  • Each server binds to localhost, on a high-port.
    • My recipe is that the port of the webserver for user "foo" is "$(id -u foo)".
  • On the front-end I have a proxy to route connections to the appropriate back-end, based on the Host header.

The webserver I chose initially was thttpd, which gained points because it was small, auditable, and simple to launch. Something like this was my recipe:

#!/bin/sh
exec thttpd -D -C /srv/steve.org.uk/thttpd.conf

Unfortunately thttpd suffers from a few omissions, most notably it doesn't support either "Keep-Alive", or "Compression" (i.e. gzip/deflate), so it would always be slower than I wanted.

On the plus side it was simple to use, supported CGI scripts, and served me well once I'd patched it to support X-Forwarded-For for IPv6 connections.

Recently I setup a server optimization site and was a little disappointed that the site itself scored poorly on Google's page-speed test. So I removed thttpd for that site, and replacing it with nginx. The end result was that the site scored 98/100 on Google's page-speed test. Progress. Unfortunately I couldn't do that globally because nginx doesn't support old-school plain CGI scripts.

So last night I removed both nginx and thttpd, and now every site on my box is hosted using lighttpd.

There weren't too many differences in the setup, though I had to add some rules to add caching for *.css, etc, and some of my code needed updating.

Beyond that today I've setup a dedicated docker host - which allows me to easily spin up containers. Currently I've got graphite monitoring for my random hosts, and a wordpress guest for plugin development/testing.

Now to go back to reading Off to be the wizard .. - not as good as Rick Cook's wizardry series (which got less good as time went on, but started off strongly), but still entertaining.

| 2 comments.

 

I am lightened, can we drop this?

Tuesday, 16 February 2010

As part of some house-keeping I've been checking over my systems and ensuring they're all tickity-boo for the past couple of days.

One thing that I'm getting increasingly tempted by is converting my kvm guest to a 64-bit system.

I've not quite sold myself on the prospect of what will be a fair amount of downtime, but I'm 90% there.

I do think that a lot of my setup needs an overhaul, for example:

  • Running all my websites under www-data is beginning to worry me.
  • Running services as root is beginning to make me more and more paranoid.

One possible plan is to wipe my system, and then restore data from backups. A perhaps saner approach is divide my guest into two smaller ones, and migrate services over one by one (e.g. website1, website2, .. websiteN, email, etc).

For the moment I've taken a complete dump of my existing guest, and I'm running it with an IP in the 10.0.0.0/24 range on my desktop. That's at least given me a clear idea of the amount of work involved.

I'm still a little unclear on how best to manage running N websites with the intention they'll each run under their own UID. I guess it comes down to having a few instances of nginx/lighttpd/apache and then proxy from *:80 to the actual back-end. Precisely which mixture of services to use is a little overwhelming. Though at some point soon I need to start enabling IPv6 support, and that changes things a little.

(Not least because nginx has no IPv6 support present in the Lenny release - I've got a backported package which I run on the Debian Administration website.)

It's possible I could hack mod_vhost_alias to redirect/proxy to a local port based upon the virtual hostname present in the request - that's pretty trivial and I've already done something similar for work purposes. Though something like that should presumably already exist? I would expect a map of some form:

example.org: 127.0.0.1:8080
example.net: 127.0.0.1:9090

That has to be about the minimum necessary information to make the decision; a pair of vhost name & local destination.

/me googles some..

Update

OK quick update I've added local users for some of my sites, and now have them running under thttpd.

skx:/etc/thttpd# ls -ltr /home/www/ | tail -n 4
drwxr-sr-x  4 s-static   s-static   4096 Jan 15 01:41 static.steve.org.uk
drwxr-sr-x  5 s-openid   s-openid   4096 Feb 16 21:31 openid.steve.org.uk
drwxr-sr-x  6 s-images   s-images   4096 Feb 16 21:52 images.steve.org.uk
drwxr-sr-x  5 s-packages s-packages 4096 Feb 16 22:03 packages.steve.org.uk

That seems to work well, with a small wrapper script to start N instances of thttpd instead of a single one. Minor issues are that I'm using mod_proxy to forward requests to the thtpd instances running upon the loopback - and it was initially logging 127.0.0.1 as the source IP. A quick patch later all is well.

I'll leave it running a couple of the simple sites for the next few days and see if it kills children. If it does I'll convert the rest.

Probably will aim to have nginx in front of thttpd, instead of Apache, but this way I don't have to worry about mod_rewrite rules just yet.

ObFilm: Cruel Intentions

| 11 comments.

 

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