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Optimization Recipes

31 January 2014 21:50

Today I am mostly in my bed suffering from "the plague".

Between naps I've worked on a new site a little:

Hopefully this will become updated, contributions welcome, and be useful to the world.

(Source available on github.)

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That time I didn't find a kernel bug, or did I?

14 August 2019 13:01

Recently I saw a post to the linux kernel mailing-list containing a simple fix for a use-after-free bug. The code in question originally read:

    hdr->pkcs7_msg = pkcs7_parse_message(buf + buf_len, sig_len);
    if (IS_ERR(hdr->pkcs7_msg)) {
        kfree(hdr);
        return PTR_ERR(hdr->pkcs7_msg);
    }

Here the bug is obvious once it has been pointed out:

  • A structure is freed.
    • But then it is dereferenced, to provide a return value.

This is the kind of bug that would probably have been obvious to me if I'd happened to read the code myself. However patch submitted so job done? I did have some free time so I figured I'd scan for similar bugs. Writing a trivial perl script to look for similar things didn't take too long, though it is a bit shoddy:

  • Open each file.
  • If we find a line containing "free(.*)" record the line and the thing that was freed.
  • The next time we find a return look to see if the return value uses the thing that was free'd.
    • If so that's a possible bug. Report it.

Of course my code is nasty, but it looked like it immediately paid off. I found this snippet of code in linux-5.2.8/drivers/media/pci/tw68/tw68-video.c:

    if (hdl->error) {
        v4l2_ctrl_handler_free(hdl);
        return hdl->error;
    }

That looks promising:

  • The structure hdl is freed, via a dedicated freeing-function.
  • But then we return the member error from it.

Chasing down the code I found that linux-5.2.8/drivers/media/v4l2-core/v4l2-ctrls.c contains the code for the v4l2_ctrl_handler_free call and while it doesn't actually free the structure - just some members - it does reset the contents of hdl->error to zero.

Ahah! The code I've found looks for an error, and if it was found returns zero, meaning the error is lost. I can fix it, by changing to this:

    if (hdl->error) {
        int err = hdl->error;
        v4l2_ctrl_handler_free(hdl);
        return err;
    }

I did that. Then looked more closely to see if I was missing something. The code I've found lives in the function tw68_video_init1, that function is called only once, and the return value is ignored!

So, that's the story of how I scanned the Linux kernel for use-after-free bugs and contributed nothing to anybody.

Still fun though.

I'll go over my list more carefully later, but nothing else jumped out as being immediately bad.

There is a weird case I spotted in ./drivers/media/platform/s3c-camif/camif-capture.c with a similar pattern. In that case the function involved is s3c_camif_create_subdev which is invoked by ./drivers/media/platform/s3c-camif/camif-core.c:

        ret = s3c_camif_create_subdev(camif);
        if (ret < 0)
                goto err_sd;

So I suspect there is something odd there:

  • If there's an error in s3c_camif_create_subdev
    • Then handler->error will be reset to zero.
    • Which means that return handler->error will return 0.
    • Which means that the s3c_camif_create_subdev call should have returned an error, but won't be recognized as having done so.
    • i.e. "0 < 0" is false.

Of course the error-value is only set if this code is hit:

    hdl->buckets = kvmalloc_array(hdl->nr_of_buckets,
                      sizeof(hdl->buckets[0]),
                      GFP_KERNEL | __GFP_ZERO);
    hdl->error = hdl->buckets ? 0 : -ENOMEM;

Which means that the registration of the sub-device fails if there is no memory, and at that point what can you even do?

It's a bug, but it isn't a security bug.

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